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4.3 Indexes and Table Types
Now that we have discussed the common index types, terminology, and uses in relatively generic terms so far, let's look at the indexes implemented in each of MySQL's storage engines. Each engine implements a subset of the three index types we've looked at. They also provide different optimizations that you should be aware of.
4.3.1 MyISAM Tables
MySQL's default table type provides B-tree indexes, and as of Version 4.1.0, it provides R-tree indexes for spatial data. In addition to the standard benefits that come with a good B-tree implementation, MyISAM adds two other important but relatively unknown features prefix compression and packed keys.
Prefix compression is used to factor out common prefixes in string keys. In a table that stores URLs, it would be a waste of space for MySQL to store the "http://" in every node of the B-tree. Because it is common to large number of the keys, it will compress the common prefix so that it takes significantly less space.
Packed keys are best thought of as prefix compression for integer keys. Because integer keys are stored with their high bytes first, it's common for a large group of keys to share a common prefix because the highest bits of the number change far less often. To enable packed keys, simply append:
PACKED_KEY = 1
to the CREATE TABLE statement.
MySQL stores the indexes for a table in the table's .MYI file.
18.104.22.168 Delayed key writes
One performance-enhancing feature of MyISAM tables is the ability to delay the writing of index data to disk. Normally, MySQL will flush modified key blocks to disk immediately after making changes to them, but you can override this behavior on a per-table basis or globally. Doing so provides a significant performance boost during heavy INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE activity.
MySQL's delay_key_write tristate setting controls this behavior. The default, ON, means that MySQL will honor the DELAY_KEY_WRITE option in CREATE TABLE. Setting it to OFF means that MySQL will never delay key writes. And setting it to ALL tells MySQL to delay key writes on all MyISAM tables regardless of the DELAY_KEY_WRITE used when the table was created.
The downside of delayed key writes is that the indexes may be out of sync with the data if MySQL crashes and has unwritten data in its key buffer. A REPAIR TABLE, which rebuilds all indexes and may consume a lot of time, is necessary to correct the problem.
4.3.2 Heap Tables
MySQL's only in-memory table type was originally built with support just for hash indexes. As of Version 4.1.0, however, you may choose between B-tree and hash indexes in Heap tables. The default is still to use a hash index, but specifying B-tree is simple:
mysql> create table heap_test ( -> name varchar(50) not null, -> index using btree (name) -> ) type = HEAP; Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
To verify that the index was created properly, use the SHOW KEYS command:
mysql> show keys from heap_test \G *************************** 1. row *************************** Table: heap_test Non_unique: 1 Key_name: name Seq_in_index: 1 Column_name: name Collation: A Cardinality: NULL Sub_part: NULL Packed: NULL Null: Index_type: BTREE Comment: 1 row in set (0.00 sec)
By combining the flexibility of B-tree indexes and the raw speed of an in-memory table, query performance of the temp tables is hard to beat. Of course, if all you need are fast single-key lookups, the default hash indexes in Heap tables will serve you well. They are lightning fast and very space efficient.
The index data for Heap tables is always stored in memory—just like the data.
4.3.3 BDB Tables
MySQL's Berkeley DB (BDB) tables provide only B-tree indexes. This may come as a surprise to long-time BDB users who may be familiar with its underlying hash-based indexes. The indexes are stored in the same file as the data itself.
BDB's indexes, like those in MyISAM, also provide prefix compression. Like InnoDB, BDB also uses clustered indexes, and BDB tables require a primary key. If you don't supply one, MySQL creates a hidden primary key it uses internally for locating rows. The requirement exists because BDB always uses the primary key to locate rows. Index entries always refer to rows using the primary key rather than the record's physical location. This means that record lookups on secondary indexes are slightly slower then primary-key lookups.
4.3.4 InnoDB Tables
InnoDB tables provide B-tree indexes. The indexes provide no packing or prefix compression. In addition, InnoDB also requires a primary key for each table. As with BDB, though, if you don't provide a primary key, MySQL will supply a 64-bit value for you.
The indexes are stored in the InnoDB tablespace, just like the data and data dictionary (table definitions, etc.). Furthermore, InnoDB uses clustered indexes. That is, the primary key's value directly affects the physical location of the row as well as its corresponding index node. Because of this, lookups based on primary key in InnoDB are very fast. Once the index node is found, the relevant records are likely to already be cached in InnoDB's buffer pool.
4.3.5 Full-Text Indexes
A full-text index is a special type of index that can quickly retrieve the locations of every distinct word in a field. MySQL's provides full-text indexing support in MyISAM tables. Full-text indexes are built against one or more text fields (VARCHAR, TEXT, etc.) in a table.
The full-text index is also stored in a table's .MYI file. It is implemented by creating a normal two-part MyISAM B-tree index in which the first field is a VARCHAR, and the second is a FLOAT. The first field contains the indexed word, and the FLOAT is its local weight in the row.
Because they generally contain one record for each word in each indexed field, full-text indexes can get large rather quickly. Luckily, MySQL's B-tree indexes are quite efficient, so space consumed by full-text is well worth the performance boost.
It's not uncommon for a query like:
select * from articles where body = "%database%"
to run thousands of times faster when a full-text index is added and the query is re-written as:
select * from articles (body) match against ('database')
As with all index types, it's a matter of trading space for speed.
4.3.6 Index Limitations
There are many times when MySQL simply can't use an index to satisfy a query. To help you recognize these limitations (and hopefully avoid them), let's look at the four main impediments to using an index.
22.214.171.124 Wildcard matches
select * from pages where page_text like "%buffy%"
is bound to be slow. It requires MySQL to scan every row in the table. And it won't even find all occurrences, because "buffy" may be followed by some form of punctuation. The solution, of course, is to build a full-text index on the page_text field and query using MySQL's MATCH AGAINST syntax.
When you're dealing with partial words, however, things degenerate quickly. Imagine trying to find the phone number for everyone whose last name contains the string "son", such as Johnson, Ansona, or Bronson. That query would look like this:
select phone_number from phone_book where last_name like "%son%"
That seems suspiciously similar to the "buffy" example, and it is. Because you are performing a wildcard search on the field, MySQL will need to read every row, but switching to a full-text index won't help. Full-text indexes deal with complete words, so they're of no help in this situation.
If that's surprising, consider how you'd attempt to locate all those names in a normal phone book. Can you think of an efficient approach? There's really no simple change that can be made to the printed phone book that will facilitate this type of query.
126.96.36.199 Regular expressions
Using a regular expression has similar problems. Imagine trying to find all last names that end with either "ith," such as Smith, or "son" as in Johnson. As any Perl hacker would tell you, that's easy. Build a regular expression that looks something like (son|ith)$.
Translating that into MySQL, you might write this query:
select last_name from phone_book where last_name rlike "(son|ith)$"
However, you'd find that it runs slowly, and it does so for the same reasons that wildcard searches are slow. There's simply no generalized and efficient way to build an index that facilitates running arbitrary wildcard or regular-expression searches.
In this specific case, you can work around this limitation by storing reversed last names in a second field. Then you can reverse the sense of the search and use a query like this:
select last_name from phone_book where rev_last_name like "thi%" union select last_name from phone_book where rev_last_name like "nos%"
But that's efficient only because you're starting at the beginning of the string, which is really the end of the real string before it is reversed. Again, there's no general solution to this problem.
Note that a regular expression still isn't efficient in this case. You might be tempted to write this query:
select last_name from phone_book where rev_last_name rlike "^(thi|nos)"
You would be disappointed by its performance. The MySQL optimizer simply never tries to optimize regex-based queries.
188.8.131.52 Poor statistics or corruption
If MySQL's internal index statistics become corrupted or otherwise incorrect (possibly as the result of a crash or accidental server shutdown), MySQL may begin to exhibit very strange behavior. If the statistics are simply wrong, you may find that it no longer uses an index for your query. Or it may use an index only some of the time.
What's likely happened is that MySQL believes that the number of rows that match your query is so high that it would actually be more efficient to perform a full table scan. Because table scans are primarily sequential reads, they're faster than reading a large percentage of the records using an index, which requires far more disk seeks.
If this happens (or you suspect it has), try the index repair and analysis commands explained in the "Index Maintenance" section later in this chapter.
184.108.40.206 Too many matching rows
Similarly, if a table actually does have too many rows that really do match your query, performance can be quite slow. How many rows are too many for MySQL? It depends. But a good rule of thumb is that when MySQL believes more than about 30% of the rows are likely matches, it will resort to a table scan rather than using the index. There are a few exceptions to this rule. You'll find a more detailed discussion of this problem in Chapter 5.
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