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Conventions Used in This Book

The following formatting conventions are used in this book:


Used for emphasis and to signify the first use of a term. Italic is also used for commands, email addresses, web sites, FTP sites, file and directory names, and newsgroups.


Occasionally used to refer to particular keys on a computer keyboard or to portions of a user interface, such as the Back button or the Options menu.

Constant Width

Used in all Java code and generally for anything that you would type literally when programming, including keywords, data types, constants, method names, variables, class names, and interface names. Also used for command lines and options that should be typed verbatim on the screen, as well as tags that might appear in an HTML document.

Constant Width Italic

Used for the names of method parameters and generally as a placeholder to indicate an item that should be replaced with an actual value in your program. Also used for variable expressions in command-line options.

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