2.1. General Installation Issues
Before installing MySQL, you should do the following:
This section contains the information necessary to carry out these steps. After doing so, you can use the instructions in later sections of the chapter to install the distribution that you choose.
2.1.1. Operating Systems Supported by MySQL
This section lists the operating systems on which you can expect to be able to run MySQL.
We use GNU Autoconf, so it is possible to port MySQL to all modern systems that have a C++ compiler and a working implementation of POSIX threads. (Thread support is needed for the server. To compile only the client code, the only requirement is a C++ compiler.) We use and develop the software ourselves primarily on Linux (SuSE and Red Hat), FreeBSD, and Sun Solaris (versions 8 and 9).
MySQL has been reported to compile successfully on the following combinations of operating system and thread package. Note that for many operating systems, native thread support works only in the latest versions.
Not all platforms are equally well-suited for running MySQL. How well a certain platform is suited for a high-load mission-critical MySQL server is determined by the following factors:
Based on the preceding criteria, the best platforms for running MySQL at this point are x86 with SuSE Linux using a 2.4 or 2.6 kernel, and ReiserFS (or any similar Linux distribution) and SPARC with Solaris (2.7-9). FreeBSD comes third, but we really hope it joins the top club once the thread library is improved. We also hope that at some point we are able to include into the top category all other platforms on which MySQL currently compiles and runs, but not quite with the same level of stability and performance. This requires some effort on our part in cooperation with the developers of the operating systems and library components that MySQL depends on. If you are interested in improving one of those components, are in a position to influence its development, and need more detailed instructions on what MySQL needs to run better, send an email message to the MySQL internals mailing list. See Section 1.7.1, "MySQL Mailing Lists."
Please note that the purpose of the preceding comparison is not to say that one operating system is better or worse than another in general. We are talking only about choosing an OS for the specific purpose of running MySQL. With this in mind, the result of this comparison might be different if other factors were considered. In some cases, the reason one OS is better for MySQL than another might simply be that we have been able to put more effort into testing and optimizing for a particular platform. We are just stating our observations to help you decide which platform to use for running MySQL.
2.1.2. Choosing Which MySQL Distribution to Install
When preparing to install MySQL, you should decide which version to use. MySQL development occurs in several release series, and you can pick the one that best fits your needs. After deciding which version to install, you can choose a distribution format. Releases are available in binary or source format.
18.104.22.168. Choosing Which Version of MySQL to Install
The first decision to make is whether you want to use a production (stable) release or a development release. In the MySQL development process, multiple release series co-exist, each at a different stage of maturity:
We do not believe in a complete code freeze because this prevents us from making bugfixes and other fixes that must be done. By "somewhat frozen" we mean that we may add small things that should not affect anything that currently works in a production release. Naturally, relevant bugfixes from an earlier series propagate to later series.
Normally, if you are beginning to use MySQL for the first time or trying to port it to some system for which there is no binary distribution, we recommend going with the production release series. Currently, this is MySQL 5.0. All MySQL releases, even those from development series, are checked with the MySQL benchmarks and an extensive test suite before being issued.
If you are running an older system and want to upgrade, but do not want to take the chance of having a non-seamless upgrade, you should upgrade to the latest version in the same release series you are using (where only the last part of the version number is newer than yours). We have tried to fix only fatal bugs and make only small, relatively "safe" changes to that version.
If you want to use new features not present in the production release series, you can use a version from a development series. Note that development releases are not as stable as production releases.
If you want to use the very latest sources containing all current patches and bugfixes, you can use one of our BitKeeper repositories. These are not "releases" as such, but are available as previews of the code on which future releases are to be based.
The MySQL naming scheme uses release names that consist of three numbers and a suffix; for example, mysql-5.0.12-beta. The numbers within the release name are interpreted as follows:
For each minor update, the last number in the version string is incremented. When there are major new features or minor incompatibilities with previous versions, the second number in the version string is incremented. When the file format changes, the first number is increased.
Release names also include a suffix to indicates the stability level of the release. Releases within a series progress through a set of suffixes to indicate how the stability level improves. The possible suffixes are:
MySQL uses a naming scheme that is slightly different from most other products. In general, it is usually safe to use any version that has been out for a couple of weeks without being replaced by a new version within the same release series.
All releases of MySQL are run through our standard tests and benchmarks to ensure that they are relatively safe to use. Because the standard tests are extended over time to check for all previously found bugs, the test suite keeps getting better.
All releases have been tested at least with these tools:
22.214.171.124. Choosing a Distribution Format
After choosing which version of MySQL to install, you should decide whether to use a binary distribution or a source distribution. In most cases, you should probably use a binary distribution, if one exists for your platform. Binary distributions are available in native format for many platforms, such as RPM files for Linux or PKG package installers for Mac OS X. Distributions also are available as Zip archives or compressed tar files.
Reasons to choose a binary distribution include the following:
Under some circumstances, you may be better off installing MySQL from a source distribution:
126.96.36.199. How and When Updates Are Released
MySQL is evolving quite rapidly and we want to share new developments with other MySQL users. We try to produce a new release whenever we have new and useful features that others also seem to have a need for.
We also try to help users who request features that are easy to implement. We take note of what our licensed users want, and we especially take note of what our support customers want and try to help them in this regard.
No one is required to download a new release. The News section helps you determine whether the new release has something you really want. See the News section of the online "MySQL Reference Manual" at http://dev.mysql.com/doc/mysql/en/news.html.
We use the following policy when updating MySQL:
188.8.131.52. Release PhilosophyNo Known Bugs in Releases
We put a lot of time and effort into making our releases bug-free. We haven't released a single MySQL version with any known fatal repeatable bugs. (A "fatal" bug is something that crashes MySQL under normal usage, produces incorrect answers for normal queries, or has a security problem.)
Our aim is to fix everything that is fixable without making a stable MySQL version less stable. In certain cases, this means we can fix an issue in the development versions, but not in the stable (production) version. Naturally, we document such issues so that users are aware of them.
Here is a description of our build process:
184.108.40.206. MySQL Binaries Compiled by MySQL AB
As a service of MySQL AB, we provide a set of binary distributions of MySQL that are compiled on systems at our site or on systems where supporters of MySQL kindly have given us access to their machines.
In addition to the binaries provided in platform-specific package formats, we offer binary distributions for a number of platforms in the form of compressed tar files (.tar.gz files). See Section 2.2, "Standard MySQL Installation Using a Binary Distribution."
The RPM distributions for MySQL 5.0 releases that we make available through our Web site are generated by MySQL AB.
For Windows distributions, see Section 2.3, "Installing MySQL on Windows."
These distributions are generated using the script Build-tools/Do-compile, which compiles the source code and creates the binary tar.gz archive using scripts/make_binary_distribution.
For information about the compilers and options used to build these binaries, see the section in the online "MySQL Reference Manual" at http://dev.mysql.com/doc/mysql/en/mysql-binaries.html. This information can also be obtained by looking at the variables COMP_ENV_INFO and CONFIGURE_LINE inside the script bin/mysqlbug of every binary tar file distribution.
Anyone who has more optimal options for any of the following configure commands can mail them to the MySQL internals mailing list. See Section 1.7.1, "MySQL Mailing Lists."
If you want to compile a debug version of MySQL, you should add --with-debug or --with-debug=full to the following configure commands and remove any -fomit-frame-pointer options.
2.1.3. How to Get MySQL
Check our downloads page at http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/ for information about the current version of MySQL and for downloading instructions. For a complete up-to-date list of MySQL download mirror sites, see http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/mirrors.html. You can also find information there about becoming a MySQL mirror site and how to report a bad or out-of-date mirror.
Our main mirror is located at http://mirrors.sunsite.dk/mysql/.
2.1.4. Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG
After you have downloaded the MySQL package that suits your needs and before you attempt to install it, you should make sure that it is intact and has not been tampered with. MySQL AB offers three means of integrity checking:
The following sections describe how to use these methods.
If you notice that the MD5 checksum or GPG signatures do not match, first try to download the respective package one more time, perhaps from another mirror site. If you repeatedly cannot successfully verify the integrity of the package, please notify us about such incidents, including the full package name and the download site you have been using, at email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org. Do not report downloading problems using the bug-reporting system.
220.127.116.11. Verifying the MD5 Checksum
After you have downloaded a MySQL package, you should make sure that its MD5 checksum matches the one provided on the MySQL download pages. Each package has an individual checksum that you can verify with the following command, where package_name is the name of the package you downloaded:
shell> md5sum package_name
shell> md5sum mysql-standard-5.0.19-linux-i686.tar.gz aaab65abbec64d5e907dcd41b8699945 mysql-standard-5.0.19-linux-i686.tar.gz
You should verify that the resulting checksum (the string of hexadecimal digits) matches the one displayed on the download page immediately below the respective package.
Note: Make sure to verify the checksum of the archive file (for example, the .zip or .tar.gz file) and not of the files that are contained inside of the archive.
Note that not all operating systems support the md5sum command. On some, it is simply called md5, and others do not ship it at all. On Linux, it is part of the GNU Text Utilities package, which is available for a wide range of platforms. You can download the source code from http://www.gnu.org/software/textutils/ as well. If you have OpenSSL installed, you can use the command openssl md5 package_name instead. A Windows implementation of the md5 command-line utility is available from http://www.fourmilab.ch/md5/.winMd5Sum is a graphical MD5 checking tool that can be obtained from http://www.nullriver.com/index/products/winmd5sum.
18.104.22.168. Signature Checking Using GnuPG
At MySQL AB, we sign MySQL downloadable packages with GnuPG (GNU Privacy Guard). GnuPG is an Open Source alternative to the well-known Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) by Phil Zimmermann. See http://www.gnupg.org/ for more information about GnuPG and how to obtain and install it on your system. Most Linux distributions ship with GnuPG installed by default. For more information about GnuPG, see http://www.openpgp.org/.
To verify the signature for a specific package, you first need to obtain a copy of MySQL AB's public GPG build key, which you can download from http://www.keyserver.net/. The key that you want to obtain is named email@example.com. Alternatively, you can cut and paste the key directly from the following text:
Key ID: pub 1024D/5072E1F5 2003-02-03 MySQL Package signing key (www.mysql.com) <firstname.lastname@example.org> Fingerprint: A4A9 4068 76FC BD3C 4567 70C8 8C71 8D3B 5072 E1F5 Public Key (ASCII-armored): -----BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK----- Version: GnuPG v1.0.6 (GNU/Linux) Comment: For info see http://www.gnupg.org mQGiBD4+owwRBAC14GIfUfCyEDSIePvEW3SAFUdJBtoQHH/nJKZyQT7h9bPlUWC3 RODjQReyCITRrdwyrKUGku2FmeVGwn2u2WmDMNABLnpprWPkBdCk96+OmSLN9brZ fw2vOUgCmYv2hW0hyDHuvYlQA/BThQoADgj8AW6/0Lo7V1W9/8VuHP0gQwCgvzV3 BqOxRznNCRCRxAuAuVztHRcEAJooQK1+iSiunZMYD1WufeXfshc57S/+yeJkegNW hxwR9pRWVArNYJdDRT+rf2RUe3vpquKNQU/hnEIUHJRQqYHo8gTxvxXNQc7fJYLV K2HtkrPbP72vwsEKMYhhr0eKCbtLGfls9krjJ6sBgACyP/Vb7hiPwxh6rDZ7ITnE kYpXBACmWpP8NJTkamEnPCia2ZoOHODANwpUkP43I7jsDmgtobZX9qnrAXw+uNDI QJEXM6FSbi0LLtZciNlYsafwAPEOMDKpMqAK6IyisNtPvaLd8lH0bPAnWqcyefep rv0sxxqUEMcM3o7wwgfN83POkDasDbs3pjwPhxvhz6//62zQJ7Q7TXlTUUwgUGFj a2FnZSBzaWduaW5nIGtleSAod3d3Lm15c3FsLmNvbSkgPGJ1aWxkQG15c3FsLmNv bT6IXQQTEQIAHQUCPj6jDAUJCWYBgAULBwoDBAMVAwIDFgIBAheAAAoJEIxxjTtQ cuH1cY4AnilUwTXn8MatQOiG0a/bPxrvK/gCAJ4oinSNZRYTnblChwFaazt7PF3q zIhMBBMRAgAMBQI+PqPRBYMJZgC7AAoJEElQ4SqycpHyJOEAn1mxHijft00bKXvu cSo/pECUmppiAJ41M9MRVj5VcdH/KN/KjRtW6tHFPYhMBBMRAgAMBQI+QoIDBYMJ YiKJAAoJELb1zU3GuiQ/lpEAoIhpp6BozKI8p6eaabzF5MlJH58pAKCu/ROofK8J Eg2aLos+5zEYrB/LsrkCDQQ+PqMdEAgA7+GJfxbMdY4wslPnjH9rF4N2qfWsEN/l xaZoJYc3a6M02WCnHl6ahT2/tBK2w1QI4YFteR47gCvtgb6O1JHffOo2HfLmRDRi Rjd1DTCHqeyX7CHhcghj/dNRlW2Z0l5QFEcmV9U0Vhp3aFfWC4Ujfs3LU+hkAWzE 7zaD5cH9J7yv/6xuZVw411x0h4UqsTcWMu0iM1BzELqX1DY7LwoPEb/O9Rkbf4fm Le11EzIaCa4PqARXQZc4dhSinMt6K3X4BrRsKTfozBu74F47D8Ilbf5vSYHbuE5p /1oIDznkg/p8kW+3FxuWrycciqFTcNz215yyX39LXFnlLzKUb/F5GwADBQf+Lwqq a8CGrRfsOAJxim63CHfty5mUc5rUSnTslGYEIOCR1BeQauyPZbPDsDD9MZ1ZaSaf anFvwFG6Llx9xkU7tzq+vKLoWkm4u5xf3vn55VjnSd1aQ9eQnUcXiL4cnBGoTbOW I39EcyzgslzBdC++MPjcQTcA7p6JUVsP6oAB3FQWg54tuUo0Ec8bsM8b3Ev42Lmu QT5NdKHGwHsXTPtl0klk4bQk4OajHsiy1BMahpT27jWjJlMiJc+IWJ0mghkKHt92 6s/ymfdf5HkdQ1cyvsz5tryVI3Fx78XeSYfQvuuwqp2H139pXGEkg0n6KdUOetdZ Whe70YGNPw1yjWJT1IhMBBgRAgAMBQI+PqMdBQkJZgGAAAoJEIxxjTtQcuH17p4A n3r1QpVC9yhnW2cSAjq+kr72GX0eAJ4295kl6NxYEuFApmr1+0uUq/SlsQ== =YJkx -----END PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----
shell> gpg --import mysql_pubkey.asc
After you have downloaded and imported the public build key, download your desired MySQL package and the corresponding signature, which also is available from the download page. The signature file has the same name as the distribution file with an .asc extension. For example:
Make sure that both files are stored in the same directory and then run the following command to verify the signature for the distribution file:
shell> gpg --verify package_name.asc
shell> gpg --verify mysql-standard-5.0.19-linux-i686.tar.gz.asc gpg: Signature made Tue 12 Jul 2005 23:35:41 EST using DSA key ID 5072E1F5 gpg: Good signature from "MySQL Package signing key (www.mysql.com) <email@example.com>"
The Good signature message indicates that everything is all right. You can ignore any insecure memory warning you might obtain.
See the GPG documentation for more information on how to work with public keys.
22.214.171.124. Signature Checking Using RPM
For RPM packages, there is no separate signature. RPM packages have a built-in GPG signature and MD5 checksum. You can verify a package by running the following command:
shell> rpm --checksig package_name.rpm
shell> rpm --checksig MySQL-server-5.0.19-0.i386.rpm MySQL-server-5.0.19-0.i386.rpm: md5 gpg OK
Note: If you are using RPM 4.1 and it complains about (GPG) NOT OK (MISSING KEYS: GPG#5072e1f5), even though you have imported the MySQL public build key into your own GPG keyring, you need to import the key into the RPM keyring first. RPM 4.1 no longer uses your personal GPG keyring (or GPG itself). Rather, it maintains its own keyring because it is a system-wide application and a user's GPG public keyring is a user-specific file. To import the MySQL public key into the RPM keyring, first obtain the key as described in Section 126.96.36.199, "Signature Checking Using GnuPG." Then use rpm --import to import the key. For example, if you have saved the public key in a file named mysql_pubkey.asc, import it using this command:
shell> rpm --import mysql_pubkey.asc
2.1.5. Installation Layouts
This section describes the default layout of the directories created by installing binary or source distributions provided by MySQL AB. A distribution provided by another vendor might use a layout different from those shown here.
For MySQL 5.0 on Windows, the default installation directory is C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.0. (Some Windows users prefer to install in C:\mysql, the directory that formerly was used as the default. However, the layout of the subdirectories remains the same.) The installation directory has the following subdirectories:
Installations created from MySQL AB's Linux RPM distributions result in files under the following system directories:
On Unix, a tar file binary distribution is installed by unpacking it at the installation location you choose (typically /usr/local/mysql) and creates the following directories in that location:
A source distribution is installed after you configure and compile it. By default, the installation step installs files under /usr/local, in the following subdirectories:
Within its installation directory, the layout of a source installation differs from that of a binary installation in the following ways:
You can create your own binary installation from a compiled source distribution by executing the scripts/make_binary_distribution script from the top directory of the source distribution.