Internally, IMCC works a little differently with PASM and PIR source code, so each has different restrictions. The default is to run in a "mixed" mode that allows PASM code to mix with the higher-level syntax unique to PIR.
A file with a .pasm extension is treated as pure PASM code, as is any file run with the -a command-line option. These files can use macros, but none of PIR's syntax. This mode is mainly used for running pure PASM tests that were originally written for assemble.pl.
print "He's pining for the fjords.\n"
The statement delimiter is a newline \n, just like PASM, so each statement has to be on its own line. Any statement can start with a label.
LABEL: print I1
But unlike PASM, PIR has some higher-level constructs, including symbol operators:
I1 = 5
count = 5
and complex statements built from multiple keywords and symbol operators:
if I1 <= 5 goto LABEL
We'll get into these in more detail as we go.
I1 = 5 # assign '5'
7.2.3 Variables and Constants
print 42 # integer constant print 0x2A # hexadecimal integer print 0b1101 # binary integer print 3.14159 # floating point constant print 1.e6 # scientific notation
Strings are enclosed in quotes:
These can use the standard escape sequences, like \t (tab), \n (newline), \r (return), \f (form feed), \\ (literal slash), \" (literal double quote), etc. The one difference from PASM strings is that in PIR strings the NULL character must be escaped as \x00:
print "Binary\x00nul embedded"
220.127.116.11 PASM registers
PIR code has a variety of ways to store values while you work with them. The most basic way is to use Parrot registers directly. Parrot register names always start with a single character that shows whether it is an integer, numeric, string, or PMC register, and end with the number of the register (between 0 and 31):
set S0, "Hello, Polly.\n" print S0 end
This example is plain PASM syntax, but you can also use PASM registers in PIR code.
When you work directly with PASM registers, you can only have 32 registers of any one type at a time. If you have more than that, you have to start shuffling stored values on and off the user stack. You also have to manually track when it's safe to reuse a register. This kind of low-level access to the Parrot registers is handy when you need it, but it's pretty unwieldy for large sections of code.
18.104.22.168 Temporary registers
IMCC provides an easier way to work with Parrot registers. The temporary register variables are named like the PASM registers—with a single character for the type of register and a number—but they start with a $ character:
set $S42, "Hello, Polly.\n" print $S42 end
The most obvious difference between PASM registers and temporary register variables is that you have an unlimited number of temporaries. IMCC handles register allocation for you. It keeps track of how long a value in a Parrot register is needed and when that register can be reused.
The previous example used the $S42 temporary. When the code is compiled, that temporary is allocated to the Parrot register S0. As long as that temporary is needed, it is stored in S0. When it's no longer needed, S0 is re-allocated to some other value:
$S42 = "Hello, " print $S42 $S43 = "Polly.\n" print $S43 end
This example uses two temporary string registers. Since they don't overlap, both will be allocated to the S0 register. If you change the order a little so both temporaries are needed at the same time, they're allocated to different registers:
$S42 = "Hello, " # allocated to S1 $S43 = "Polly.\n" # allocated to S0 print $S42 print $S43 end
In this case, $S42 is allocated to S1 and $S43 is allocated to S0.
IMCC allocates temporary registers to Parrot registers in ascending order of their score. The score is based on a number of factors related to variable usage. Variables used in a loop have a higher score than variables outside a loop. Variables that span a long range have a lower score than ones that are used only briefly.
If you want to peek behind the curtain and see how IMCC is allocating registers, you can run it with the -d switch to turn on debugging output.
$ imcc -d1000 hello.imc
If hello.imc is the first example above, it produces this output:
code_size(ops) 11 oldsize 0 0 set_s_sc 0 1 set S0, "Hello, " 3 print_s 0 print S0 5 set_s_sc 0 0 set S0, "Polly.\n" 8 print_s 0 print S0 10 end end Hello, Polly.
That's probably a lot more information than you wanted if you're just starting out. You can also generate a PASM file with the -o switch and have a look at how the PIR code translates:
$ imcc -o hello.pasm hello.imc
You'll find more details on these options and many others in Section 7.5 later in this chapter.
22.214.171.124 Named variables
.local string hello set hello, "Hello, Polly.\n" print hello end
This example defines a string variable named hello, assigns it the value "Hello, Polly.\n", and then prints the value.
The valid types are string, int, float, and any Parrot class name (like PerlInt or PerlString). It should come as no surprise that these are the same divisions as Parrot's four register types. IMCC allocates named variables to Parrot registers the same way it allocates temporary register variables.
The name of a variable must be a valid PIR identifier. It can contain letters, digits, and underscores, but the first character has to be a letter or underscore. Identifiers don't have any limit on length yet, but it's a safe bet they will before the production release.
126.96.36.199 Parrot classes
P0 = new PerlString # same as new P0, .PerlString P0 = "Hello, Polly.\n" print P0 end
Here, a PerlString object is created with the new CLASSNAME syntax and stored in the PMC register P0.
It gets assigned the string value "Hello, Polly.\n" and then printed. The syntax is exactly the same with temporary register variables:
$P4711 = new PerlString $P4711 = "Hello, Polly.\n" print $P4711 end
.local PerlString hello hello = new PerlString hello = "Hello, Polly.\n" print hello end
.local PerlString hello hello = new PerlString hello = "Hello, " $P0 = hello # PASM: set P0, P1 $P0 = "Polly.\n" hello = hello . $P0 print hello end
In this example, $P0 and hello are really the same string. When you assign to one, you've assigned to both. To get a true copy, you have to use $P0 = clone hello instead of $P0 = hello, as follows:
.local PerlString hello hello = new PerlString hello = "Hello, " $P0 = clone hello # PASM: clone P0, P1 $P0 = "Polly.\n" hello = hello . $P0 print hello end
188.8.131.52 Named constants
.const string hello = "Hello, Polly.\n" print hello end
This example declares a named string constant hello and prints the value. Named constants can be used in all the same places as literal constants, but have to be declared beforehand:
.const int the_answer = 42 # integer constant .const string mouse = "Mouse" # string constant .const float pi = 3.14159 # floating point constant
184.108.40.206 Register spilling
As we mentioned earlier, IMCC allocates Parrot registers for all temporary register variables and named variables. When IMCC runs out of registers to allocate, some of the variables have to be stored elsewhere. This is known as "spilling." IMCC spills the variables with the lowest score. It stores the spilled variable in a PerlArray object while it isn't used, then restores it to a register the next time it's needed:
set $I1, 1 set $I2, 2 ... set $I33, 33 ... print $I1 print $I2 ... print $I33
If you create 33 integer variables like this—all containing values that are used later—IMCC allocates the available integer registers to variables with a higher score and spills the variables with a lower score. In this example it picks $I1 and $I2. Behind the scenes, IMCC generates code to store the values:
new P31, .PerlArray ... set I0, 1 # I0 allocated to $I1 set P31, I0 # spill $I1 set I0, 2 # I0 reallocated to $I2 set P31, I0 # spill $I2
It creates a PerlArray object and stores it in register P31.
The set instruction is the last time $I1 is used for a while, so immediately after that, IMCC stores its value in the spill array and frees up I0 to be reallocated.
Just before $I1 and $I2 are accessed to be printed, IMCC generates code to fetch the values from the spill array:
... set I0, P31 # fetch $I1 print I0
7.2.4 Symbol Operators
$S2000 = "Hello, Polly.\n" print $S2000 end
Standing alone, it's the same as the PASM set opcode. In fact, if you run imcc in bytecode debugging mode (as in Section 220.127.116.11), you'll see it really is just a set opcode underneath.
PIR has many other symbol operators: arithmetic, concatenation, comparison, bitwise, and logical. Many of these combine with assignment to produce the equivalent of a PASM opcode:
.local int sum sum = $I42 + 5 print sum print "\n" end
The statement sum = $I42 + 5 translates to add I0, I1, 5.
A label names a line of code so other instructions can refer to it. Label names have to be valid PIR identifiers, just like named variables, so they're made of letters, numbers, and underscores. Simple labels are often all caps to make them stand out more clearly. A label definition is simply the name of the label followed by a colon. It can be on its own line:
LABEL: print "Norwegian Blue\n"
or before a statement on the same line:
LABEL: print "Norwegian Blue\n"
IMCC has both local and global labels. Global labels start with an underscore. The name of a global label has to be unique, since it can be called at any point in the program. Local labels start with a letter. A local label is accessible only in the compilation unit where it's defined.
The name has to be unique there, but it can be reused in a different compilation unit.
branch L1 # local label bsr _L2 # global label
Labels are most often used in branching instructions and in calculating addresses for jumps.
7.2.6 Compilation Units
.sub _main print "Hello, Polly.\n" end .end
This example defines a compilation unit named _main that prints a string. The name is actually a global label for this piece of code. If you generate a PASM file from the PIR code (see Section 18.104.22.168), you'll see that the name translates to an ordinary label:
_main: print "Hello, Polly.\n" end
The compilation units in a file and the code outside of compilation units are parsed and processed all at once. IMCC emits each compilation unit to bytecode or PASM code as a unit when it reaches the .end directive.
The first compilation unit in a file is special. The convention is to call it _main, but the name isn't critical. Since it's emitted first, it's always executed first. This means that when it closes with an end, nothing else in the file will ever execute unless it's called from within _main.
Any statements outside a compilation unit are emitted after all the compilation units. Generally this means such code is skipped:
print "Polly want a cracker?\n" .sub _main print "Hello, Polly.\n" end .end
This code prints out "Hello, Polly." but not "Polly want a cracker?" because end halts the interpreter, so it never reaches the statement outside the compilation unit.
Directives to IMCC (which start with a ".") aren't delayed like other statements. So, if you declare a named variable or named constant outside a compilation unit, it will be available to any statements that follow it:
.local string hello hello = "Polly want a cracker?\n" print hello .sub _main hello = "Hello, Polly.\n" print hello end .end
In the first line of this example, the .local directive defines a file global variable named hello. The _main routine uses the same variable, and would give you a parse error if it hadn't been defined. "Polly want a cracker?" is never assigned to the variable and printed.
Pure PASM compilation units can use the .emit and .eom directives instead of .sub and .end:
.emit print "Hello, Polly.\n" end .eom
The .emit directive doesn't take a name.
The section coming up on Section 7.4 goes into much more detail about compilation units and their uses.
7.2.7 Scope and Namespaces
.sub _scoped_hello .local PerlString hello hello = new PerlString hello = "Welcome, Python!\n" .namespace inner .local PerlString hello hello = new PerlString hello = "Hello, Perl 6.\n" print hello .endnamespace inner print hello end .end
This example prints:
Hello, Perl 6. Welcome, Python!
The first .local directive defines a named variable hello in the default outer namespace. The second .local defines a named variable in the inner namespace. Internally, it actually mangles the name of the variable as inner::hello. The first print is nested in the inner namespace, so it prints inner::hello, "Hello, Perl 6." The second print statement retrieves the hello variable of the outer namespace, so it prints "Welcome, Python!"
Constants are collected for the whole program so they can be efficiently folded. Identical string or number constants in different compilation units get a single entry in the constant table.