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The State of Computer Crime
Computer crime has become an epidemic that affects every computer user from Fortune 500 CEO to the home user. According to the FBI's annual study on computer crime, conducted in connection with the Computer Security Institute (CSI), over 90 percent of U.S. companies have fallen victim to some form of computer crime. Eighty percent of those surveyed had experienced some financial loss associated with those attacks. Losses of $445 million were attributed to computer crime in 2001, up from $337 million in 2000. And it is certain that many more attacks go unreported. Many companies do not want to publicize that their computer systems were broken into or compromised and therefore avoid going to the authorities because they fear bad publicity could hurt their stock prices or business, especially firms in industries like banking that rely on the public trust.
As the FBI's National Infrastructure Protection Center (NIPC) predicted, computer attacks in 2002 were more frequent and more complex, often exploiting multiple avenues of attack like the Code Red worm did in 2001. They had expected hackers to concentrate on routers, firewalls, and other noncomputer devices as these are less visible and offer fuller access to a corporate LAN if exploited. They had also predicted that the time between the release of a known exploit and tools to take advantage of it would shrink, giving companies less time to respond to a potential threat. Sure enough, the average time from announcement of a security vulnerability and publishing exploit code has dropped from months to weeks. For example, the Blaster worm debuted a mere six weeks after the Microsoft Remote Procedure Call (RPC) vulnerabilities were discovered in early 2003.
The Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT), which is run jointly by Carnegie Mellon University and the federal government, tracks emerging threats and tries to warn companies of newly discovered exploits and security holes. They found that reports of computer security incidents more than doubled in 2001 over the previous year, from 21,756 to 52,658. They have been recording over 100 percent increase in attacks each year since 1998. In 2003, the number of incidents rose 70 percent even though the overall number of new vulnerabilities, defined as weaknesses in hardware or software that allow unauthorized entry or use, dropped (see Figure 1.2). This is due to the emergence of worms that spread quickly across the Internet affecting many systems with a single virus.
Figure 1.2. CERT Incident and Vulnerability Graph
This exponential growth in both the number of attacks and the methods for making those attacks is a troubling trend as businesses connect their enterprises to the Internet in record numbers. Unfortunately, many businesses have chosen to stick their heads in the sand and ignore the information security problem. A common excuse for not properly securing their computer network is "Why would a hacker come after my company? We don't have anything they want." In years past, they would have been right. Old-school hackers generally only went after large institutions with data that was valuable to them or someone else.
However, a sea change in the computer security equation has made everyone a target, even small business users. In fact, small- and medium-sized companies now comprise over 50 percent of the attacks reported by the FBI. This change has been caused by several factors, which are described in the following sections.
The Advent of the Internet
When only a few networks were connected to the Internet, companies primarily had to worry about the risk of someone gaining access to a computer console or a virus being introduced by a floppy disk. Protecting against this kind of physical threat is something businesses have been doing for years. Locks on doors, alarm systems, and even armed guards can protect the computers and systems from physical access. Anti-virus software and passwords served as the only necessary technical security precaution for firms in the pre–World Wide Web age.
With the Internet, hackers can attack from thousands of miles away and steal critical company assets, bypassing any and all physical barriers. They can then sink back into the anonymity that the Internet provides. They can come from foreign countries with no extradition treaties with the United States. They leave few clues as to who they are or even what they did. When you are connected to the Internet, you are literally no more than a few keystrokes away from every hacker, cracker, and ne'er-do-well on the network. Password protection and anti-virus software is not enough to keep intruders out of your virtual office.
Ubiquitous, Inexpensive Broadband
Not too long ago, dedicated Internet connections were the sole domain of large companies, educational institutions, and the government. Now, you can get DSL or cable modem access for your business or home use for less than $100 per month. Companies are getting online by the thousands, and this is a good thing overall for business. However, having a dedicated connection exposes them to more risk than their previous dial-up or private line connections. First of all, broadband is quite different from just dialing up via a modem from a network standpoint. Usually when you dial up, you are connected only while you are using it. With always-on broadband, hackers can work away, trying to get in, taking as much time as they need. They especially like working during the late night hours, when system administrators who might notice something awry have gone home.
Having access to a site with dedicated broadband access is very attractive to hackers. They can use that bandwidth and leverage it to attack other sites. If a hacker's goal is to take down a hugely popular site like Yahoo or Amazon by sheer brute force, they need a lot of bandwidth. Most of these sites have bandwidth that is measured in gigabits, not megabits. In order to flood those sites, they need a huge bandwidth pipe, which the average hacker can't afford. However, if they break into other machines on the Internet with broadband connections, they can use these machines to attack their real target. If they can "own" enough sites, they suddenly have a very big gun to wield. This is known as a distributed denial of service (DDOS) attack. It has the added benefit of throwing the authorities off their trail because all of the attacks are coming from unsuspecting victims, rather than the attackers themselves. These victim machines are known as zombies, and hackers have special software they can load to make these computers or servers "awake" on special commands that only they can issue. These programs are often very hard to find and eradicate because the host computer shows no ill effects while the zombie software is dormant. The one thing that the hacker hordes want is your bandwidth; they could generally care less who you are.
Another reason hackers want to break into machines is to store their tools and other ill-gotten loot. These exploited machines are called storage lockers by the hackers, who often traffic in illicit files. The files might be pornography, pirated software or movies, or other hacker tools. Rather than store these on their own machines, where they might be found and used against them in court, they prefer to hide them on unsuspecting victim's servers. A broadband connection is nice because they have lots of bandwidth for uploading and downloading files. A small company is even better because it is likely they don't have a large IT staff monitoring their Internet connection and probably don't have very sophisticated security measures in place. They can give the hacked server IP address out to their buddies and use them for informal swap meets. Again, these kinds of intrusions are hard to find because the computer acts normally, although you might notice a slowdown in performance or download speeds while it is being used for these unauthorized activities.
Attack of the Script Kiddies
Another thing that has changed the targets for computer crime is simply a rise in the number of participants, especially at the low end of expertise. These hacker novices are called Script Kiddies because they often use point-and-click hacking tools or "scripts" found on the Web rather than their own knowledge. Hackers used to be part of an elite community of highly skilled (albeit morally challenged) individuals who were proficient in writing code and understood computers at their most fundamental level. They even had an informal Hacker Ethics code, which, although eschewing the idea of privacy, stated that no harm should be done to computers invaded. The hacker experience was primarily about learning and exploring. However, that community soon splintered and was watered down by newcomers. Now one can find hundreds of Web sites that can teach you how to hack in a matter of minutes. Many so-called hackers are teenagers with little knowledge of coding. Rather than seeking knowledge, they are intent on joyriding hacked computers, bragging rights, and outright vandalism. And with the influx of new bodies to the hacking community, like any thief or criminal, they look for the easiest "mark." These inexperienced criminals attack the systems of smaller companies, those with fewer defenses and less-experienced administrators who are not as likely to notice their neophyte mistakes. Most of them wouldn't dare taking on the Pentagon or the CIA's computers, which have impressive digital defenses and significant prosecutorial powers. Few small companies can afford to investigate, much less prosecute, a computer intrusion even if they do notice it. And since most Script Kiddies' main goal is not learning but mischief, they often cause more damage than an experienced computer criminal would.
Worms, Auto-rooters, and Other Malware
Finally, a major reason that the fundamental computer security scene has changed is that much hacking nowadays is automated and random. Script kiddies can use tools that scan IP addresses at random to look for weak or exploitable machines. They will often let these programs run all night, harvesting potential victims for them. There are packages, called auto-rooters, that gain "root" or admin privileges on a machine. These tools not only do the reconnaissance for them, but also actually carry out the act of breaking into the machine and placing their Trojan horse or other malicious software (malware) in place. The result is that with a single click of a mouse, someone with no more computer experience than a six-year old can "own" dozens of machines in a single evening.
With the advent of Internet worms like Nimda in 2001, even the human element has been taken out of the picture. These autonomous cousins to the computer virus roam the Internet, looking for computers with a certain set of security holes. When they find one, they insert themselves into that computer, perform whatever function they were programmed to do, and then set that machine up to search for more victims. These automated hacking machines have infected far more networks than have human troublemakers. They also spread incredibly fast. It is estimated that the Code Red worm spread to over 300,000 servers within a few days of its release.
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