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The TCP/IP network protocol was once an obscure protocol used mostly by government and educational institutions. In fact, it was invented by the military research agency, DARPA, to provide interruption-free networking. Their goal was to create a network that could withstand multiple link failures in the event of something catastrophic like a nuclear strike. Traditional data communications had always relied on a single direct connection, and if that connection was degraded or tampered with, the communications would cease. TCP/IP offered a way to "packetize" the data and let it find its own way across the network. This created the first fault-tolerant network.
However, most corporations still used the network protocols provided by their hardware manufacturers. IBM shops were usually NetBIOS or SNA; Novell LANs used a protocol called IPX/SPX; and Windows LANs used yet another standard, called NetBEUI, which was derived from the IBM NetBIOS. Although TCP/IP became common in the 1980s, it wasn't until the rise of the Internet in the early 90s that TCP/IP began to become the standard for data communications. This brought about a fall in the prices for IP networking hardware, and made it much easier to interconnect networks as well.
TCP/IP allows communicating nodes to establish a connection and then verify when the data communications start and stop. On a TCP/IP network, data to be transmitted is chopped up into sections, called packets, and encapsulated in a series of "envelopes," each one containing specific information for the next network layer. Each packet is stamped with a 32-bit sequence number so that even if they arrive in the wrong order, the transmission can be reassembled. As the packet crosses different parts of the network each layer is opened and interpreted, and then the remaining data is passed along according to those instructions. When the packet of data arrives at its destination, the actual data, or payload, is delivered to the application.
It sounds confusing, but here is an analogy. Think of a letter you mail to a corporation in an overnight envelope. The overnight company uses the outside envelope to route the package to the right building. When it is received, it will be opened up and the outside envelope thrown away. It might be destined for another internal mailbox, so they might put in an interoffice mail envelope and send it on. Finally it arrives at its intended recipient, who takes all the wrappers off and uses the data inside. Table 3.1 shows how some network protocols encapsulate data.
As you can see, the outside of our data "envelope" has the Ethernet address. This identifies the packet on the Ethernet network. Inside that layer is the network information, namely the IP address; and inside that is the transport layer, which sets up a connection and closes it down. Then there is the application layer, which is an HTTP header, telling the Web browser how to format a page. Finally comes the actual payload of packet—the content of a Web page. This illustrates the multi-layered nature of network communications.
There are several phases during a communication between two network nodes using TCP/IP (see Figure 3.2). Without going into detail about Domain Name Servers (DNS) and assuming we are using IP addresses and not host names, the first thing that happens is that the machine generates an ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) request to find the corresponding Ethernet address to the IP it is trying to communicate with. ARP converts an IP address into a MAC address on an Ethernet network. Now that we can communicate to the machine using IP, there is a three-way communication between the machines using the TCP protocol to establish a session. A machine wishing to send data to another machine sends a SYN packet to synchronize, or initiate, the transmission. The SYN packet is basically saying, "Are you ready to send data?" If the other machine is ready to accept a connection from the first one, it sends a SYN/ACK, which means, "Acknowledged, I got your SYN packet and I'm ready." Finally, the originating machine sends an ACK packet back, saying in effect, "Great, I'll start sending data." This communication is called the TCP three-way handshake. If any one of the three doesn't occur, then the connection is never made. While the machine is sending its data, it tags the data packets with a sequence number and acknowledges any previous sequence numbers used by the host on the other end. When the data is all sent, one side sends a FIN packet to the opposite side of the link. The other side responds with a FIN/ACK, and then the other side sends a FIN, which is responded to with a final FIN/ACK to close out that TCP/IP session.
Figure 3.2. TCP Three-Way Handshake
Because of the way TCP/IP controls the initiation and ending of a session, TCP/IP communications can be said to have state, which means that you can tell what part of the dialogue is happening by looking at the packets. This is a very important for firewalls, because the most common way for a firewall to block outside traffic is to disallow SYN packets from the outside to machines inside the network. This way, internal machines can communicate outside the network and initiate connections to the outside, but outside machines can never initiate a session. There are lots of other subtleties in how firewalls operate, but basically that's how simple firewalls allow for one-way only connections for Web browsing and the like.
There are several built-in firewall applications in Linux: these are known as Iptables in kernel versions 2.4x, Ipchains in kernel versions 2.2x, and Ipfwadm in kernel version 2.0. Most Linux-based firewalls do their magic by manipulating one of these kernel-level utilities.
All three applications operate on a similar concept. Firewalls generally have two or more interfaces, and under Linux this is accomplished by having two or more network cards in the box. One interface typically connects to the internal LAN; this interface is called the trusted or private interface. Another interface is for the public (WAN) side of your firewall. On most smaller networks, the WAN interface is connected to the Internet. There also might be a third interface, called a DMZ (taken from the military term for Demilitarized Zone), which is usually for servers that need to be more exposed to the Internet so that outside users can connect to them. Each packet that tries to pass through the machine is passed through a series of filters. If it matches the filter, then some action is taken on it. This action might be to throw it out, pass it along, or masquerade ("Masq") it with an internal private IP address. The best practice for firewall configuration is always to deny all and then selectively allow traffic that you need (see the sidebar on firewall configuration philosophy).
Firewalls can filter packets at several different levels. They can look at IP addresses and block traffic coming from certain IP addresses or networks, check the TCP header and determine its state, and at higher levels they can look at the application or TCP/UDP port number. Firewalls can be configured to drop whole categories of traffic, such as ICMP. ICMP-type packets like ping are usually rejected by firewalls because these packets are often used in network discovery and denial of service. There is no reason that someone outside your company should be pinging your network. Firewalls will sometimes allow echo replies (ping responses), though, so you can ping from inside the LAN to the outside.
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