B. The kernel consists of a small static core and many dynamically loadable kernel modules. Many kernel modules are loaded automatically at boot time, but for efficiency, otherssuch as device driversare loaded from the disk as needed by the kernel. The shell and environmental variables are user specific and are loaded when each user logs in. The boot PROM is firmware and is considered part of the hardware. The system milestones are part of the operating system, not the kernel. For more information, see Chapter 3, "Perform System Boot and Shutdown Procedures."
A, C, D. The single-user milestone, also called run level s, is the single-user (system administrator) state. Only root is allowed to log in at the console, and any users logged in are logged out when entering this run level. All file systems previously mounted remain mounted and accessible. All services except the most basic operating system services are shut down in an orderly manner. The shutdown state is referred to as run level 0. For more information, see Chapter 3, "System Startup and Shutdown."
D. The svc.startd daemon is responsible for maintaining the system services and ensures that the system boots to the correct milestone.
B, C. lrc:/etc/rc3.d/S90samba is the FRMI for a legacy service. svc:/system/filesystem/local:default is an example of service identifier within the SMF. A milestone is a special type of service made up of a defined set of other services, but does not define a specific service. /var/svc/manifest/milestone/multi-user.xml describes the dependencies for a milestone.
B. Disabled indicates that the service is not configured to start up and is not running. Uninitialized is the state of a service before the configuration has been read. Offline indicates that the service is not yet running, but is configured to run. Degraded indicates the service is enabled, but is running at a limited capacity.
D. security-mode restricts the set of operations that users are allowed to perform at the OpenBoot prompt. security-password sets the password, but does not set the security mode that restricts users. set-security and set-secure are not OpenBoot NVRAM variables. For more information, see Chapter 3.
B, C, D. On most Ultra-based systems, the bootstrap procedure consists of some basic phases. First, the system hardware is powered on and the system firmware (PROM) executes a power-on self-test (POST). After the tests have been completed successfully, the firmware attempts to autoboot if the appropriate OpenBoot configuration variable (auto-boot?) has been set to true. Otherwise it enters interactive OpenBoot command mode. The bootstrap procedure does not include loading the kernel. For more information, see Chapter 3.
C. The uname command, with the -a flag set, displays basic information currently available from the system, including hardware platform and current operating system release. The sysdef command outputs the current system definition such as hardware devices, loadable modules, and kernel parameters. The init command is used to start processes from information in the inittab file. The arch command displays the system's application architecture. For more information, see Chapter 2, "Installing the Solaris 10 Operating Environment."
A, C, D. The Solaris Installation program prompts you for the following: hostname, IP address, Subnet mask, whether to install Ipv6, name service, whether to use Kerberos network authentication system, timezone, root password, and language. For more information, see Chapter 2.
A, B. A patch might not be installed if it requires another patch that is not installed or if the patch is incompatible with another, previously installed patch. For more information, see Chapter 2.
C, D. The pkgchk command checks the accuracy of a software package installation and can be used to determine whether the contents or attributes of a file have changed since it was installed with the package. Use the pkginfo command to display software package information and use pkgask to store answers for an interactive installation. For more information, see Chapter 2.
D. "Expires if Not Used for:" is the correct option. Select the number of days that can elapse before the user's password expires if the user does not log in to this account. The "User Must Keep for:" field specifies the minimum number of days a user must wait before changing a password or reusing a previous password. The "User Must Change Within:" field allows you to set the maximum number of days that can elapse before a user must change his password. Max Inactive is an invalid field and does not appear in the SMC. For more information, see Chapter 4, "User and Security Administration."
C. Bourne and Korn shells initialize with a .profile, whereas the C shell uses .login and .cshrc. For more information, see Chapter 4.
A, C. The High Sierra file system (HSFS) is a read-only file system used on CD-ROMs, and the Unix file system (UFS) is the default disk-based file system used by Solaris. TMPFS resides in memory. Data in this type of file system is destroyed upon reboot. NFS is the Network File System, which is remotely mounted over the network. For more information, see Chapter 1, "Managing File Systems."
B. The superblock stores much of the information about the file system. The boot block stores information used to boot the system and does not store information about file systems. An inode stores all the information about a file except its name. A storage or data block stores the actual data for each file. For more information, see Chapter 1.
C. The df command and its options can be used to see the capacity of each file system mounted on a system, the amount of space available, and the percentage of space already in use. The ls command is used to list information about files and directories. The du command summarizes disk usage, but does not provide file system capacity information. The mountall command is used to mount all file systems listed in the /etc/vfstab file. For more information, see Chapter 1.
B. The newfs command automatically determines all the necessary parameters to pass to mkfs to construct new file systems. newfs was added in Solaris as a friendly front-end to the mkfs command to make the creation of new file systems easier. The fsck command is used to check and repair file systems. The mknod command is used to create special device files. For more information, see Chapter 1.
C. The fsck command checks and repairs file systems. Any of the others could be used to copy one file system to another. dd is used to convert and copy files reading input, one block at a time. ufsdump is used to perform file system dumps that can be used to copy file systems from one disk slice to another. volcopy is used to make an image copy of a file system. For more information, see Chapter 1.
D. The fuser command can be used to display which processes are using a particular file system. The following example uses the fuser command to find out why /cdrom is busy:
The fsck command is used to check and repair file systems. The mountall command is used to mount all file systems listed in the /etc/vfstab file. The ps command is used to list system processes and report their status, but it does not identify which file system a process may be accessing. For more information, see Chapter 1.
A, C. Although it is debatable what a "good" password might be, a proper name (Britney) is easy for a password guesser to guess. A password should contain a combination of letters, numbers, and symbols (such as space, comma, period, and so on). Varying case and mixing words can also help expand the number of possibilities that must be covered by a password-guessing program before finding the password. For more information, see Chapter 4.
C. A umask of 023 makes a mask, automatically unsetting those permission bits from otherwise full permissions. Because each digit represents an octal number corresponding respectively to Owner, Group, and World, the permissions displayed by the ls command would be displayed as rw-r--r--. The first three permission bits are rw- (read, write) for Owner, followed by r-- (read only) for Group, and finally r-- (read only) for World. For more information, see Chapter 4.
B. When using the newgrp command to switch your effective group ID, a password is demanded if the group has a password (second field of the /etc/group file) and the user is not listed in /etc/group as being a member of that group. For more information, see Chapter 4.
A, C. The prstat command is used from the command line to monitor system processes. Like the ps command, it provides information on active processes. The difference is that you can specify whether you want information on specific processes, UIDs, CPU IDs, or processor sets. By default, prstat displays information about all processes sorted by CPU usage. For more information, see Chapter 5, "Managing System Processes."
B. The SIGKILL signal can be sent to a process with kill -9 or kill -SIGKILL. Signal 9 is called a sure, unconditional kill because it cannot be caught or ignored by a process. If the process is still around after a kill -9, it is either hung up in the Unix kernel, waiting for an event such as disk I/O to complete, or you are not the owner of the process. For more information, see Chapter 5.
B. The at command is used to schedule jobs for execution at a later time. Unlike crontab, which schedules a job to happen at regular intervals, a job submitted with at executes once, at the designated time. For more information, see Chapter 5.
B, D. The Print Manager allows the system administrator to set the default printer. If the user doesn't specify a printer name or class in a valid style, the command checks the printers entry in the /etc/nsswitch.conf file for the search order. By default, the /etc/nsswitch.conf file instructs the command to search the user's PRINTER or LPDEST environment variable for a default printer name. These variables can be set by the user. If neither environment variable for the default printer is defined, the command checks the .printers file in the user's home directory for the default printer alias; again, this file can be set up by the user. If the command does not find a default printer alias in the .printers file, it then checks the print client's /etc/printers.conf file for configuration information. If the printer is not found in the /etc/printers.conf file, the command checks the name service (NIS or NIS+), if any. You must be root or a member of group 14 in order to user the Print Manager or the lpadmin command to set a system default printer. For more information, see Chapter 6.
B. The lpstat -p <printer> command will tell you whether a printer is active or idle, when it was enabled or disabled, and whether it is accepting print requests. The lpadmin command is used to configure the LP print service such as adding printers. Admintool and Print Manager can be used to create and remove printers, but they do not display information about printers. For more information, see Chapter 6.
A, B. This command uses the flags x (extract archive), v (verbose, lists all files and directories extracted), and f (archive is in the file following this argument). If backup.tar has files that specify absolute paths (for example, /etc/shadow), the files will be extracted to disk using the absolute paths. New directories will get created and files will get overwritten, so be careful and be very sure that you trust the creator of a tar file before you extract it as root. For more information, see Chapter 7, "Perform System Backups and Restorations."
C. The dd command quickly converts and copies files with different data formats, such as differences in block size or record length. dd can be used to copy an entire file system or partition to tape, and can take input from other programs through standard input. It cannot, however, compress files as it copies because it is a byte-by-byte image copy. For more information, see Chapter 7.
C. Each entry in the /proc directory is a decimal number corresponding to a process ID. Each directory in /proc has files that contain more detailed information about that process. For more information, see Chapter 5.
A, B, D. In Solaris, each disk device is described in three ways, using three distinct naming conventions:
Physical device name Represents the full device pathname in the device information hierarchy.
Instance name Represents the kernel's abbreviation name for every possible device on the system.
Logical device name Used by system administrators with most file system commands to refer to devices.
For more information, see Chapter 1.
C. Although you can find command-line equivalents to SMC tools such as smuser and smgroup, no command-line interface exists for the Solaris Management Console. For more information, see Chapter 4.
A, C, D. The SMC Toolbox Editor manages processes, users, file system mounts and shares, disks, and serial ports; schedules jobs; and has a log viewer. You can also use SMC to install patches, but not to install software. For more information, see Chapter 4.
B, E. The custom JumpStart method of installing the operating system provides a hands-off method to install groups of similar systems automatically and identically. If you use an interactive method to install the operating system (such as JumpStart, Network Install, or an Interactive Installation), you must carry on a dialog with the installation program by answering various questions. Solaris Flash is also a hands-off installation method that enables you to replicate, or clone, a Solaris environment across many similar systems. The master system and the clone systems must have the same kernel architectures. For example, you can use a Solaris Flash archive that was created from a master system that has a sun4u architecture only to install other systems with a sun4u architecture. For more information, see Chapter 2.
D. Answer A describes the Network layer, Answer B describes the Transport layer, and Answer C describes the Session layer. For more information, see Chapter 8, "The Solaris Network Environment."
B. A router is a machine that forwards packets from one network to another. In other words, the router connects networks, whereas the switch connects computers on the same network. A host can be a router, but this is not usually the case. An NIC (network interface card) is the hardware in a host that allows it to connect to a network. For more information, see Chapter 8.
A. Class C network numbers use 24 bits for the network number and 8 bits for host numbers. A Class C network number occupies the first three bytes of an IP address; only the fourth byte is assigned at the discretion of the network's owner. The first and last addresses on a network are reserved for the network number and the broadcast address. As such, a Class C network can accommodate a maximum of 254 hosts. For more information, see Chapter 8.
B. The swapfs pseudo file system is either a swap partition on a disk, or a swap file residing in another file system on a disk. The procfs, tmpfs, and fdfs all reside in memory. For more information, see Chapter 9, "Virtual File Systems, Swap Space, and Core Dumps."
B. The setup_install_server command is used to create an install server for use within a custom JumpStart environment. Answer A is the command to verify the rules file and create the rules.ok file; Answer C is used to set up a client to be able to boot across the network and install using custom JumpStart; and Answer D is the command to set up a boot-only server, which would not contain the Solaris images. For more information, see Chapter 14, "Advanced Installation Procedures."
A, B. Sun recommends that file systems mounted as read-write, or containing executable files, should always be mounted with the hard option. If you use soft-mounted file systems, unexpected I/O errors can occur. For example, consider a write request. If the NFS server goes down, the pending write request simply gives up, resulting in a corrupted file on the remote file system. A read-write file system should always be mounted with the specified hard and intr options. This lets users make their own decisions about killing hung processes. For more information, see Chapter 9.
B. The correct command to start the NFS server service after the initial share has been configured is svcadm enable nfs/server. Answer A is the command that is entered into /etc/dfs/dfstab to define the share, Answer C is the command to mount all file systems listed in /etc/vfstab, and Answer D is the command to list the details and dependencies of the NFS server service. For more information, see Chapter 9.
B, C. Both sudo and Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) allow the system administrator to assign limited administrative capabilities to non-root usersalbeit in different ways. Giving out the root password allows a user full access to all the powers of root, making for very poor security. For more information, see Chapter 11, "Controlling Access and Configuring System Messaging."
C. The metaroot command is used to carry out the necessary setup for putting a root file system under SVM control. Answer A is the command for creating and managing the state database, Answer B is the command for creating new metadevices, and Answer D is the command for clearing or removing metadevices. For more information, see Chapter 10, "Managing Storage Volumes."
A. With no arguments, the ypwhich command displays the server currently providing NIS services; that is, the server that the client is bound to. The current NIS master server is determined by running ypwhich m, which lists all of the maps and the master server for each map. The ypcat command is used to display the contents of a NIS map. /etc/nsswitch.conf is used to determine the order in which data is obtained, and the nisls command is used in NIS+ to display the contents of an object. For more information, see Chapter 12, "Naming Services."
D. The name service switch, /etc/nsswitch.conf, controls how a client workstation or application obtains network information. In this case, you would edit the /etc/nsswitch.conf file and change the hosts line to read hosts: files dns nis. The file /etc/inetd.conf is used to configure legacy network services, /etc/resolv.conf is used by DNS to identify the DNS lookup servers, and /etc/defaultrouter is used to identify the default route address. For more information, see Chapter 12.
B, D. The Custom JumpStart and WAN Boot (with a Flash Archive) methods of installing the operating system provides a way to install groups of similar systems automatically and identically. If you use the Jump Start or Interactive Install method to install the operating system, you must carry on a dialog with the installation program by answering various questions. For more information, see Chapter 14, "Advanced Installation Procedures."
D. After you create a profile, you can use the pfinstall command to test it. Testing a class file is sometimes called a dry run installation. By looking at the installation output generated by pfinstall, you can quickly determine whether a class file will do what you expect. The check command is used to verify the rules file, patchadd is used to install operating environment patches to the system, and fsck is the command to use to check the consistency of file systems. For more information, see Chapter 14.
B. The file /etc/defaultrouter is not used in changing the hostname of a Solaris system. For more information, see Chapter 8.
C. The coreadm command is used to configure core file behavior. The savecore command is used to save a memory dump following a reboot of the systemthis is because the memory dump will normally be stored temporarily in the system swap space and would be overwritten. The command svcadm restart svc:/system/coreadm:default would restart the coreadm process and admcore is a nonexistent command. For more information, see Chapter 9.
B. dumpadm is the command to use to change the default crash dump device. The crashadm command does not exist and the file /var/crash is the directory normally used for the storing of crash dumps. The gcore command is used to create core files from a running process without damaging that process. For more information, see Chapter 9.
C. The usermod command with the R flag is used to add role privileges to a user. usermodR adminusr bill is the correct answer. The commands modrole and moduser do not exist, and the rolemod command is used to modify the specification of a role. For more information, see Chapter 11.
A. The command zoneadm z apps list v would display the current status of the zone called apps. Answer B would be used to log in to the apps zone from the global zone, Answer C would be used to log in to the console of zone apps from the global zone, and Answer D is the command that would carry out the installation of zone apps. For more information, see Chapter 13, "Solaris Zones."
C. /etc/security/user_attr is the correct answer. The correct path for this RBAC database is /etc/user_attr. The other files are valid RBAC database names. For more information, see Chapter 11.
B. /etc/nfs/nfslog.conf is the file that manages NFS logging behavior, although NFS logging is not supported in NFS Version 4. The file /etc/nfslog does not exist. /etc/inetd.conf is used to configure the inetd daemon whilst /etc/default/nfs is the file used to configure default parameters for NFS operation. For more information, see Chapter 9.
B. RAID 1 maintains duplicate sets of all data on separate disk drives. Also known as mirroring. For more information, see Chapter 10, "Managing Storage Volumes."
C. RAID 5 is where both parity and data are striped across a set of disks. For more information, see Chapter 10.
B. ldapclient is used to add a client to the LDAP naming service. The remaining answers are all nonexistent commands. For more information, see Chapter 12.
C. The command svcadm refresh system/system-log would force the syslogd daemon to re-read its configuration file after a change to the file /etc/syslog.conf had been made. Answer A would list the details and dependencies of the system-log service, answer B would disable the system-log service, and answer D is an invalid option to the syslogd command.
B. The archive_location option indicates that a Solaris Flash Archive is being used to install the system and the parameter specifies the network location of the Flash Archive to use for the installation. For more information, see Chapter 14.
A, C. Because your system still has 50% of the state database replicas intact, the system will remain running. The system will only panic and must be booted into single user-mode if less than 50% of the replicas are available. The system cannot reboot into multi-user mode unless a majority (half + 1) of the total number of state database replicas are available.