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8.6 UDP Echo Client: dg_cli Function

Figure 8.8 shows the function dg_cli, which performs most of the client processing.

Figure 8.8 dg_cli function: client processing loop.

lib/dg_cli.c

 1 #include     "unp.h"

 2 void
 3 dg_cli(FILE *fp, int sockfd, const SA *pservaddr, socklen_t servlen)
 4 {
 5     int     n;
 6     char    sendline[MAXLINE], recvline[MAXLINE + 1];

 7     while (Fgets(sendline, MAXLINE, fp) != NULL) {

 8         Sendto(sockfd, sendline, strlen(sendline), 0, pservaddr, servlen);

 9         n = Recvfrom(sockfd, recvline, MAXLINE, 0, NULL, NULL);

10         recvline[n] = 0;        /* null terminate */
11         Fputs(recvline, stdout);
12     }
13 }

712 There are four steps in the client processing loop: read a line from standard input using fgets, send the line to the server using sendto, read back the server's echo using recvfrom, and print the echoed line to standard output using fputs.

Our client has not asked the kernel to assign an ephemeral port to its socket. (With a TCP client, we said the call to connect is where this takes place.) With a UDP socket, the first time the process calls sendto, if the socket has not yet had a local port bound to it, that is when an ephemeral port is chosen by the kernel for the socket. As with TCP, the client can call bind explicitly, but this is rarely done.

Notice that the call to recvfrom specifies a null pointer as the fifth and sixth arguments. This tells the kernel that we are not interested in knowing who sent the reply. There is a risk that any process, on either the same host or some other host, can send a datagram to the client's IP address and port, and that datagram will be read by the client, who will think it is the server's reply. We will address this in Section 8.8.

As with the server function dg_echo, the client function dg_cli is protocol-independent, but the client main function is protocol-dependent. The main function allocates and initializes a socket address structure of some protocol type and then passes a pointer to this structure, along with its size, to dg_cli.

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