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18.3 Building a Database

Example 18-3 shows a program, MakeAPIDB, that takes a list of class names and uses the Java Reflection API to build a database of those classes, the packages they belong to, and all methods and fields defined by the classes. Example 18-4 shows a program that uses the database created by this example.

MakeAPIDB uses the SQL CREATE TABLE statement to add three tables, named package, class, and member, to the database. The program then inserts data into those tables using INSERT INTO statements. The program uses the same INSERT INTO statements repeatedly, as it iterates though the list of class names. In this type of situation, you can often increase the efficiency of your insertions if you use PreparedStatement objects to execute the statements.

A prepared statement is essentially a blueprint for the statements you need to execute. When you send a SQL statement to the database, the database interprets the SQL and creates a template for executing the statement. If you are sending the same SQL statement repeatedly, only with different input parameters, the database still has to interpret the SQL each time. On database platforms that support prepared statements, you can eliminate this inefficiency by sending a prepared statement to the database before you actually make any calls to the database. The database interprets the prepared statement and creates its template just once. Then, when you execute the prepared statement repeatedly with different input parameters, the database uses the template it has already created. JDBC provides the PreparedStatement class to support prepared statements, but it doesn't guarantee that the underlying database actually takes advantage of them.

You create a PreparedStatement with the prepareStatement( ) method of a Connection object, as shown in Example 18-3. MakeAPIDB passes a SQL statement to prepareStatement( ), substituting ? placeholders for the variable parameters in the statement. Later, before the program executes the prepared statement, it binds values to these parameters using the various setX( ) methods (e.g., setInt( ) and setString( )) of the PreparedStatement object. Each setX( ) method takes two arguments: a parameter index (starting with 1) and a value. Then the program calls the executeUpdate( ) method of the PreparedStatement to execute the statement. (PreparedStatement also provides execute( ) and executeQuery( ) methods, just like Statement.)

MakeAPIDB expects its first argument to be the name of a file that contains a list of classes to be placed into the database. The classes should be listed one to a line; each line must contain a fully qualified class name (i.e., it must specify both package name and class name). Such a file might contain lines like the following:


The program reads database parameters from a Properties file named APIDB.props in the current directory or from an alternate Properties file specified as the second command-line argument. This Properties file is similar to, but not quite the same as, the one used in conjunction with Example 18-2; it should contain properties named driver, database, user, and password. On my system, the APIDB.props file looks as follows:

# The full classname of the JDBC driver to load: this is a MySQL driver
# The URL of the mysql server (localhost) and database (apidb) to connect to
# The name of the database user account
# The password for the database user account.
# Uncomment the line below to specify a password

Note that before you run this program, you must create the database for it on your database server. To do this, you have to follow the instructions provided by your database vendor. You can also use an existing database, as long as it doesn't already contain tables named package, class, or member.

Example 18-3. MakeAPIDB.java
package je3.sql;
import java.sql.*;
import java.lang.reflect.*;
import java.io.*;
import java.util.*;

 * This class is a standalone program that reads a list of classes and 
 * builds a database of packages, classes, and class fields and methods.
public class MakeAPIDB {
    public static void main(String args[  ]) {
        Connection c = null;       // The connection to the database
        try { 
            // Read the classes to index from a file specified by args[0]
            ArrayList classnames = new ArrayList( );
            BufferedReader in = new BufferedReader(new FileReader(args[0]));
            String name;
            while((name = in.readLine( )) != null) classnames.add(name);
            // Now determine the values needed to set up the database
            // connection. The program attempts to read a property file named
            // "APIDB.props", or one optionally specified by args[1].  This
            // property file (if any) may contain "driver", "database", "user",
            // and "password" properties that specify the necessary values for
            // connecting to the db.  If the properties file does not exist, or
            // does not contain the named properties, defaults will be used.
            Properties p = new Properties( );          // Empty properties
            try {                                     
                p.load(new FileInputStream(args[1])); // Try to load properties
            catch (Exception e1) { 
                try { p.load(new FileInputStream("APIDB.props")); }
                catch (Exception e2) {  }

            // Read values from Properties file
            String driver = p.getProperty("driver");
            String database = p.getProperty("database");
            String user = p.getProperty("user", "");
            String password = p.getProperty("password", "");

            // The driver and database properties are mandatory
            if (driver == null) 
                throw new IllegalArgumentException("No driver specified!");
            if (database == null) 
                throw new IllegalArgumentException("No database specified!");

            // Load the driver.  It registers itself with DriverManager.

            // And set up a connection to the specified database
            c = DriverManager.getConnection(database, user, password);
            // Create three new tables for our data
            // The package table contains a package id and a package name.
            // The class table contains a class id, a package id, and a name.
            // The member table contains a class id, a member name, and a bit
            // that indicates whether the class member is a field or a method.
            Statement s = c.createStatement( );
            s.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE package " + 
                            "(id INT, name VARCHAR(80))");
            s.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE class " + 
                            "(id INT, packageId INT, name VARCHAR(48))");
            s.executeUpdate("CREATE TABLE member " + 
                            "(classId INT, name VARCHAR(48), isField BIT)");
            // Prepare some statements that will be used to insert records into
            // these three tables.
            insertpackage =
                c.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO package VALUES(?,?)");
            insertclass =
                c.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO class VALUES(?,?,?)");
            insertmember =
                c.prepareStatement("INSERT INTO member VALUES(?,?,?)");

            // Now loop through the list of classes and use reflection
            // to store them all in the tables
            int numclasses = classnames.size( );
            for(int i = 0; i < numclasses; i++) {
                try {
                catch(ClassNotFoundException e) {
                    System.out.println("WARNING: class not found: " +
                                       classnames.get(i) + "; SKIPPING");
        catch (Exception e) {
            if (e instanceof SQLException)
                System.err.println("SQLState: " +
                                   ((SQLException)e).getSQLState( ));
            System.err.println("Usage: java MakeAPIDB " + 
                               "<classlistfile> <propfile>");
        // When we're done, close the connection to the database
        finally { try { c.close( ); } catch (Exception e) {  } }

     * This hash table records the mapping between package names and package
     * id.  This is the only one we need to store temporarily.  The others are
     * stored in the db and don't have to be looked up by this program
    static Map package_to_id = new HashMap( );

    // Counters for the package and class identifier columns
    static int packageId = 0, classId = 0;
    // Some prepared SQL statements for use in inserting
    // new values into the tables.  Initialized in main( ) above.
    static PreparedStatement insertpackage, insertclass, insertmember;

     * Given a fully-qualified classname, this method stores the package name
     * in the package table (if it is not already there), stores the class name
     * in the class table, and then uses the Java Reflection API to look up all
     * methods and fields of the class, and stores those in the member table.
    public static void storeClass(String name) 
        throws SQLException, ClassNotFoundException
        String packagename, classname;
        // Dynamically load the class.
        Class c = Class.forName(name);
        // Display output so the user knows that the program is progressing
        System.out.println("Storing data for: " + name);
        // Figure out the packagename and the classname
        int pos = name.lastIndexOf('.');
        if (pos == -1) {
            packagename = "";
            classname = name;
        else {
            packagename = name.substring(0,pos);
            classname = name.substring(pos+1);
        // Figure out what the package id is.  If there is one, then this
        // package has already been stored in the database.  Otherwise, assign
        // an id, and store it and the packagename in the db.
        Integer pid;
        pid = (Integer)package_to_id.get(packagename);  // Check hashtable
        if (pid == null) {
            pid = new Integer(++packageId);          // Assign an id
            package_to_id.put(packagename, pid);     // Remember it
            insertpackage.setInt(1, packageId);      // Set statement args
            insertpackage.setString(2, packagename);  
            insertpackage.executeUpdate( );           // Insert into package db

        // Now, store the classname in the class table of the database.
        // This record includes the package id, so that the class is linked to 
        // the package that contains it.  To store the class, we set arguments
        // to the PreparedStatement, then execute that statement
        insertclass.setInt(1, ++classId);       // Set class identifier
        insertclass.setInt(2, pid.intValue( ));  // Set package identifier
        insertclass.setString(3, classname);    // Set class name
        insertclass.executeUpdate( );            // Insert the class record

        // Now, get a list of all non-private methods of the class, and
        // insert those into the "members" table of the database.  Each
        // record includes the class id of the containing class, and also
        // a value that indicates that these are methods, not fields.
        Method[  ] methods = c.getDeclaredMethods( );   // Get a list of methods
        for(int i = 0; i < methods.length; i++) {    // For all non-private
            if (Modifier.isPrivate(methods[i].getModifiers( ))) continue;
            insertmember.setInt(1, classId);         // Set the class id
            insertmember.setString(2, methods[i].getName( )); // Set method name
            insertmember.setBoolean(3, false);       // It is not a field
            insertmember.executeUpdate( );            // Insert into db

        // Do the same thing for the non-private fields of the class
        Field[  ] fields = c.getDeclaredFields( );    // Get a list of fields
        for(int i = 0; i < fields.length; i++) {   // For each non-private
            if (Modifier.isPrivate(fields[i].getModifiers( ))) continue;
            insertmember.setInt(1, classId);       // Set the class id
            insertmember.setString(2, fields[i].getName( )); // Set field name
            insertmember.setBoolean(3, true);      // It is a field
            insertmember.executeUpdate( );          // Insert the record
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